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Definitions A - Z


Androgens (including testosterone) are natural or synthetic steroid hormones that give men their 'male' characteristics.


Medications used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.

Bioavailable Testosterone

Testosterone is weakly bound to albumin (a carrier protein in the body). In this form, testosterone can detach from albumin and increase the level of biologically active testosterone.

Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

CVD is a general term that describes a disease of the heart or blood vessels.

Chronic Disease

Chronic disease is a health condition or disease that is persistent in nature or otherwise long-lasting in its effects and often requires medical attention.


The presence of two or more medical conditions or diseases.

Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary heart disease is where the blood vessels supplying the heart are narrowed or blocked, caused by a build up of fatty substances called plaque within the artery wall.

Endocrine System

The endocrine system is made up of glands that make hormones which regulate normal bodily functions.

Erectile Dysfunction (ED)

ED is defined as the inability to achieve or maintain a rigid penile erection suitable for satisfactory sexual intercourse.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

FSH is one of the gonadotrophic hormones; hormones essential to pubertal development and the function of women’s ovaries and men’s testes.

Free Testosterone

Testosterone in the body that is free (not attached to carrier proteins). This is testosterone that is easily used by your body.

Glycaemic Control

Controlling blood glucose (sugar) levels.


High levels of lipids (or fats) in the blood, most noticeably low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides.


High blood pressure.


Low levels of testosterone in the blood (<8nmol/L), accompanying clinical symptoms of hypogonadism, such as low libido.

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

Referring to the communication between the hypothalamus, pituitary glands, and the gonads (reproductive organs, testes and ovaries).


A region in the brain responsible for keeping the body in a stable state, a process also known as homeostasis.


An immunoassay is a test that measures the concentration of substances (like testosterone) in the blood or other bodily tissues and fluids.

Leydig Cells

Leydig cells are found in the testes and produce testosterone stimulated by the luteinizing hormone.

Lipid Profile

The levels and proportion of different lipids (fats) in the blood.


Lipids, are also known as fats.

Luteinising Hormone

Luteinising hormone is produced and released by cells in the pituitary gland. In men, it stimulates the testes to make testosterone.

Mass Spectrometry

Mass spectrometry, also referred to as mass spectroscopy, is a technique by which chemical substances are identified by the sorting of gaseous ions in electric and magnetic fields according to their mass-to-charge ratios.

Metabolic Syndrome

When someone has a combination of diabetes, high blood pressure, and obesity.


A class of medications that work in the brain to produce a variety of effects, such as relief of pain.

Pituitary Gland

Sits at the base of the brain and is responsible for producing hormones to carry out important bodily functions, such as testosterone production in the testes.

Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin

Sex hormone-binding globulin is a protein made by the liver that transports hormones, specifically testosterone and estradiol.

Systemic Inflammation

Occurs when the immune system is constantly defending the body, creating high levels of inflammation throughout the body for an extended duration.

Visceral Organs

The internal organs of the body, including the lungs, the heart, and the organs of the digestive, excretory, reproductive, and circulatory systems.

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